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Yet that would depend on issues Tajikistans unsavoury regime resisting the temptation to divert the energy it produces to pet projects, such as a subsidised state-owned aluminium smelter, whose profits are hard to trace. In Kyrgyzstan, which is heavily indebted, support for the power line is lukewarm. Officials sound as if they are being coerced into the project, pointing to local energy shortages and to kyrgyzstans 200m share of the costs. Outside the government, there is outright hostility. Nurzat Abdyrasulova of unison, an energy watchdog in Bishkek, says that the project is not going to make money and will generate friction with Tajikistan, whose territory kyrgyzstans trade must cross. The two countries already disagree so strongly about half their mutual border that soldiers have twice exchanged sustained fire this year. That is hardly the best environment for putting up pylons.
In June the Americans quit their airbase outside kyrgyzstans capital, bishkek. In its place, china is gobbling up energy contracts, and Russia is making efforts to drag some central Asian countries into a new political-economic union. The paper electricity project is proving divisive even among those who are meant to gain from. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are both keen to build giant dams, and the idea of generating electricity to send south gives the plans internal legitimisation. But that infuriates downstream Uzbekistan, which fears losing water supplies. Its president, Islam Karimov, has even said that the dams could provoke a war. Tajik officials speak as if the new power line and their dream dam, rogun, which would be the worlds tallest, are inseparable. With Rogun we can ensure energy not only for ourselves, but also for Afghanistan and pakistan. Just as Arabs sell oil, we will sell electricity, says davlatbek salolov, deputy director of Tajikistans largest hydropower plant.
Funds exist to get construction under way. The world Bank has pledged 530m in grants and loans, and Americas State department has offered another 15m. In theory, building can start as soon as the four countries involved sign power-purchase agreements. Other obstacles exist, however. America had hoped that the casa line would add zip to its lacklustre new Silk road strategy, a plan that Hillary Clinton backed when she was secretary of state. The idea was to lessen Russias influence over its former vassals while helping Afghanistan to trade more and improve its infrastructure. But the influence of America in Moscows backyard is fading as it winds down its military efforts in Afghanistan.
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Land/Region and kong kingdomUnited StatesVietnam and and edward Edward fd2eac". Wie viele lautsprecher planen sie zu installieren? War in Afghanistan, corruption and regional rivalries: until recently these were the main hurdles to.2 billion, American-backed project to send surplus electricity from Central Asia to energy-hungry Afghanistan and pakistan. Now comes another: there write is unlikely to be any surplus electricity. The concept, first aired eight years ago, was simple. In summer, when Afghanistan and pakistan most need electricity, melting snow fills hydropower reservoirs beyond capacity in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The idea was to harness the spillover, generating electricity to send south along a transmission line to needier places (see map).
In winter, as rivers freeze and both former soviet republics themselves face dire electricity shortages, all the electricity generated would be kept at home. Get our daily newsletter, upgrade your inbox and get our daily dispatch and Editor's Picks. But in the years since western governments mooted the 1,200-kilometre (750-mile) power line, known as casa-1000, electricity shortages in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan have worsened. This summer, to conserve water in readiness for the winter, kyrgyzstan is actually importing electricity from Tajikistan. Local shortages are largely caused by inefficiencies in soviet-era infrastructure and a failure to reform state-run energy monopolies. Backers of the transmission line claim it would bring revenues to deal with those failings; pakistan is expected to pay more than three times as much for electricity as rates prevailing in Central Asia.
Attempts to sell the product to actual customers, even if it doesn't exist yet. "have you talked to a customer?" he asks. "If not, i don't want to talk to you about the business.". Bygrave still thinks plans help, however. Forty percent of Babson students who have taken the college's business plan writing course go on to start businesses after graduation, twice the rate of those who didn't study plan writing.
"Even if they don't write a plan bygrave says, "they've had to think about how opportunity recognition fits with marketing, building the right team, making financial projections and.". And a wide gulf separates having a formal written plan and having no plan at all. "Every business has to start with a plan says Bygrave, whether it's a mental construction never committed to paper or a more advanced description jotted down on the back of an envelope. The money factor, skeptics and fans of business plans agree on one point: Securing funding almost always requires a formal plan. Companies funded by friends and family may not need a plan, bygrave says, but if you go to venture capitalists, commercial banks, government-backed lenders and most angel investors, you will need a business plan. That viewpoint gets no traction from Daniel Stewart, co-founder of Port Richey, florida-based Envala. Stewart and his partner funded the small-business software provider, yet Stew-art still put together a business plan complete with financial projections.
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"Going into the study, i was very skeptical about the value of business plans gartner says. But after he and his colleagues looked at data from the panal Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, a national generalizable survey of more essay than 800 people in the process of starting businesses, he found that writing a plan greatly increased the chances that a person would. "you're two and a half times more likely to get into business he points out. Gartner's earlier concerns about the necessity of business plans, he says, were that they were "all talk. Our research shows that business plans are all about walking the walk. People who write business plans also do more stuff." And doing more stuff, such as researching markets and preparing book projections, increases the chances an entrepreneur will follow through. For his part, bygrave doesn't think his research says business plans are a waste of time. "We're saying that writing a business plan ahead of time, before you open your doors for business, does not appear to help the performance of the business subsequently he explains. So what would Bygrave like to see instead of a business plan?
business plan cannot be over-emphasized." But lately, questions have arisen. In 2006, william Bygrave, a professor emeritus at Babson College and longtime entrepreneurship researcher, studied several years' worth of Babson graduates to find out how much better those who started businesses with a formal, written plan did than those who didn't. "We can't find any difference? In other words, bygrave and his team found that entrepreneurs who began with formal plans had no greater success than those who started without them. For or Against, that's hardly the final word, however. Gartner also set out to study the idea.
That was in 2000. Today, the 40-year-old is co-founder and co-owner of roaring lion Energy Drink,.2 million company in Sun Valley, california. "we've grown the business from a 62,000 investment to the. 2 energy drink in bars and nightclubs hackney says. The company has 32 resume employees, and Hackney's erstwhile sounding boards are now his investors and co-managers. The business plan he wrote has been through numerous revisions, and today, a regularly updated marketing plan guides the company. Writing the plan, hackney says, was "absolutely" worthwhile.
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The experts aren't so sure-but entrepreneurs like the founders of roaring lion energy drink say it's a must. Here's how to know if writing a business book plan is for you. Opinions expressed by, entrepreneur contributors are their own. This story appears in the, december 2008 issue. Subscribe starting a business was the last thing on sean Hackney's mind when he sat down to write a business plan. Hoping to persuade a soft drink company to hire him, hackney scripted a plan for taking on his former employer, red Bull North America Inc. But when he showed it to his corporate attorney father and former Red Bull managing director, "they said, 'don't send this to coke or Pepsi. Start the business, and we'll start it with you he recalls.